International : des organisations autochtones envoient un message au nouveau Président de la Banque mondiale

Le 24 juin 2012, des organisations autochtones et des ONG  envoyaient une lettre ouverte au nouveau Président de la Banque mondiale, Jim Yong Kim. Dans ce document étaient énoncés un certain nombre de points dont ces organisations souhaitaient qu’ils s’appliquent aux relations entre les autochtones et la Banque mondiale, notamment :

1) Mise en place d’un organisme de conseil indépendant de la banque mondiale relatif aux peuples autochtones (semblable au World Bank External Advisory Group on Forests). Il devrait être établi en respectant un processus d’auto-sélection autochtone lors de sa composition et fondé sur des principes de références qui aurait été mûris grâce à des contributions et à la participation des autochtones.

2) Mettre en place des mécanismes de consultation aux niveaux national et régional afin de permettre aux autochtones de pouvoir apporter une contribution aux branches opérationnelles de la Banque mondiale, et avoir une influence à différents niveaux de la prise de décision de cette institution ainsi que contribuer au travail de lIndigenous Peoples Advisory Council.

3) Recrutement d’un membre du personnel de haut niveau, qui agirait comme personne clé concernant les questions relatives aux peuples autochtones avec le mandat d’assurer la coordination avec les instances onusiennes concernées (forum permanent, mécanisme expert, rapporteur spécial) et de fournir des services de secrétariat au Indigenous Peoples’ Advisory Council. (…)

4) Un renforcement des capacités interne au personnel de la Banque mondiale afin de s’assurer que ce dernier est mieux informé et mieux à même de mettre en œuvre  à la fois les exigences liées aux politiques de la Banque et aux normes internationales concernant les peuples autochtones

5) Consacrer un soutien financier au renforcement des capacités des peuples autochtones

(traduction de l’auteure)

Le texte de la lettre en anglais : 

Dear Dr. Kim,

We, the undersigned indigenous peoples’ organizations from across the globe and civil society organizations, would like to congratulate you on your appointment to the position of President of the World Bank Group. We wish you success during your tenure, which is a turbulent time economically and environmentally as well as socially. We look forward to working closely with you towards achieving our collective goals of improving the livelihoods and well-being of 370 million indigenous peoples throughout the world.

At the outset, we wish to state the challenges that confront us today. The historical legacy of the World Bank with indigenous peoples has been marked by persistent instances of serious violations of our human rights. Indigenous peoples are rights holders under international law. We hold not only rights to our lands, territories and resources but also to self-determination of our ways of life, including self-determined development. Human rights violations of indigenous peoples have taken place across all investment sectors in which the Bank is financing and are structurally linked to the western development model that the World Bank has promoted and financed for the last 6 decades. For indigenous peoples’ communities, the core poverty alleviation objective of the Bank is unachievable as long as the Bank’s projects, designed to benefit dominant populations, bring about further impoverishment of our communities in economic terms and marginalization in social and cultural terms. These issues of human rights, social equity and ecological harm will be reiterated in the Rio+20 processes as core issues for sustainable development.

We feel that these adverse impacts on indigenous peoples are rarely acknowledged and addressed by the World Bank. This was substantiated by the Bank’s own internal review (August 2011) of the implementation of the current Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples (OP/BP 4.10). The review led by the Banks’ Indigenous Peoples Advisor found, inter alia, (i) systemic failure to prepare indigenous peoples-appropriate planning documents; (ii) wide-spread failure to appropriately disclose planning documents to impacted indigenous peoples; (iii) lack of documentation related to the required broad community support (and therefore inability to confirm its existence); (iv) consistent inability to address land and resource rights appropriately in projects where such rights are relevant; (v) widespread failure to establish local or national level complaints mechanisms; and (vi) failure to establish the required benefit-sharing agreements for projects where lands or cultural resources are commercially developed.

Central to the failure of this policy to effectively address indigenous peoples’ concerns with Bank-financed projects are two key factors. First, the current Operational Policy on Indigenous Peoples itself is not based on a human rights-based approach; for example, it is inconsistent with the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); adopted by the UN General Assembly in September 2007) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention # 169. The Policy therefore fails to recognize the right scope of considerations from the outset. It is particularly a glaring fact that the World Bank is the only MDB that does not recognize the rights of indigenous peoples to free, prior and informed consent. The IFC within the World Bank Group as well as the regional MDBs (ADB, IADB, EBRD, etc.) recognize these rights. The second key factor is the persistent lack of political will within the Bank’s Senior Management to effectively enforce the requirements under the existing operational policy framework, let alone to attempt to go beyond them to meet the existing international standards on indigenous peoples.

Lire la suite du courrier sur le site :  Indigenous peoples and issues

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